DIGITAL FORENSICS

The advancement of modern technology makes it that ethics governing its use and capability as evidence in court to be difficult.

Digital Forensics has grown from being a craftsmanship to being a part of many kinds of investigations. It deals with the use of scientifically derived and proven methods toward the preservation, collection, validation, identification, analysis, interpretation, documentation, and presentation of digital evidence derived from digital sources to reconstruct events and help identify criminals. This type of discipline did not originate from traditional forensic science but out of practitioner community.

Many computer related cases has been left unsolved before the development of digital forensics. The lack of preparation, financial resources, tools, and skills needed to successfully gather evidence is the main reason for this. Moreover, the lack of training and correct procedure also causes the evidence to be easily disputed. In digital forensics, the credibility of the digital evidence is the most important aspect. Digital evidence includes computer evidence, digital audio and video, and cell phones. In addition, in legal settings, the evidence should have integrity, authenticity, non-reference, and minimization.

In early times, computer forensic process is compared to the admission of documents as evidence in courts. The following were the steps identified to admit any documentary evidence into court.

    1. Acquisition
    2. Identification
    3. Evaluation
    4. Admission as evidence

In this connection, different models were proposed to standardize digital forensics process in electronic crime scene investigation. These consist of different steps which mainly focus on:

    1. 1. Preparation of tools, techniques, documents, and monitoring authorization and management support
    2. Collection of untainted evidence
    3. Preservation of evidence which includes replication of the digital evidence
    4. Examination of evidence including revealing hidden and obscured information and the relevant documentation
    5. Reconstruction of data fragments and drawing conclusions based on evidence found
    6. Presentation of report outline including the examination process and data recovered from the investigation

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