The Laws of Genetics Apply even if you refuse to Learn Them.
DNA Profiling is a powerful tool for identification by using the characteristics of DNA. DNA is obtained from a person or a sample of bodily tissue. Human DNA profiles can be used to identify the origin of samples found at a crime scene or for parentage testing. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid and first observed by the Swiss physician Frederich Meiser. It is a molecule that encodes genetic instructions that circulates in living organisms and other known species that makes us all unique. It is hereditary material to all living organisms as well as in viruses. In human beings, DNA is found inside a special area of the cell called the nucleus. 99.9999% of all human DNA are identical, and 0.01% is enough to distinguish that we are all unique DNA is isolated from the cells and millions of copies are being generated using the ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’ or PCR Method. By this method, genetic code is produced and being analysed.
Type of DNA Testing
1. Paternity Test
This type of DNA test establishes genetic proof of whether a man is the biological father of a child. If the DNA patterns between a child and the alleged father do not match on two or more genetic locations, then the alleged father can be excluded. If all the genetic locations between the mother, child, and alleged father match, the paternity likelihood is 99.9%.
2. Maternity Test
The DNA maternity test is useful for individuals who need to determine maternity in a vast number of situations:
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Ordered by mothers who have had a child through in vitro fertilization to ensure that the IVF laboratory had used the correct embryo for implantation.
Adult children who were put up for adoption often search for their biological mothers and once found, most reunified mother-child pairs choose to conduct a DNA maternity test to ensure that the correct mother and child have been reunified..
After birth, babies often all look very similar. There have been situations where the hospital staff believe that they may have mixed up the tags on the babies, and either the hospital or the child's mother proceed with DNA maternity testing to ensure that a hospital mix-up had not occurred.
3. Siblingship Test
In a siblingship test, two individuals are tested to determine whether they share one or both of their biological parents. Full siblings have the same biological parents while half siblings only share one. The odds of siblings sharing the same genes are higher than two unrelated individuals. This This test reveals the DNA matches and determines the probability of relatedness by statistical calculation.
This test can also be used to confirm paternity indirectly when the alleged father is not available for DNA testing. However, the mother is encouraged to participate to help exclude her genetic contribution to the siblings.
4. Grandparentage DNA Test
This test is used to determine whether there is a biological link between a grandparent and a grandchild.
When the alleged father is not available for the DNA test, at least one of the alleged father’s biological parents can perform a grandparent DNA test to determine the if he is true father of a child. If both grandparents can perform the DNA test, it will be just the same as if the alleged father was available. If only one grandparent is available for testing, it is then suggested that the biological mother’s DNA sample be included to help exclude her genetic contribution.
5. Avuncular DNA Test
This test is also known as an Aunt/Uncle DNA test and allows a person to know if a child is your biological niece or nephew. It is useful if the alleged father is not available for DNA testing. The analysis of the child’s DNA is compared with the DNA of the alleged father’s siblings and the child’s mother.
6. Prenatal DNA Test
Before birth, paternity testing of the fetus is possible using the amniotic fluid containing cells from the baby or the tissue from the placenta. The amniotic fluid is collected by inserting a needle through the abdomen and this is called amniocentesis. On the other hand, the tissue sample from the placenta is collected by passing a needle through the wall of the abdomen or by passing a small tube through the vagina and the neck of the womb. The second procedure is called chorionic villus sampling (CVS).
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It is a capital mistake to theorize before you have all the evidence. It Biases the Judgement